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Johann Stamitz: The Periodical Overture in 8 Parts – No. III

This is the 3rd of the Periodical Overtures in 8 Parts which are being published in conjunction with Musikproduktion Höflich.

Listen here before heading over to musikproduktion höflich to obtain the score and parts.

In Periodical Overture No. 3, Bremner made his first major structural change to a pre-existing work: he completely eliminated the third movement—a minuet and trio—that had appeared in both the (earlier) Parisian and Amsterdam prints. In fact, Stamitz had been in the first wave of composers to add that dance to their symphonic works. Nevertheless, English audiences seem to have been slower than their continental counterparts to embrace the expansion of symphonies into the four-movement “sonata cycle” model, so Bremner arbitrarily trimmed Stamitz’s symphony by 25%, apparently to bring it more in line with British taste. Since Stamitz had died even before Huberty’s print appeared, Bremner would have been unable to seek the composer’s consent to the change, but since international copyright laws did not yet exist, it is doubtful that Bremner would have felt any need to obtain permission.

Bremner’s three-movement version of the symphony had a wide reach. In 1768, five years after its publication, records show that it was performed twice during concerts of the Edinburgh Musical Society (on 4 March and 15 July). It was played again the next year, on 17 February and 8 December; twice in 1770; again on 27 November 1778; thrice in 1781; two times in 1782; three times each in 1783 and in 1784; and once again in 1785.[1] Also in 1785, when the Moravians founded a community in Fairfield, England, Stamitz’s Periodical Overture No. 3 was among the works in their music library.[2] It may have been the unnumbered “Periodical Symphony” by Stamitz that closed the second act of a 1771 concert in Boston, Massachusetts, although Bremner had issued five other works by Stamitz before that point, any of which could have been the symphony in the concert listing.[3] The simple fact that Bremner rapidly published six Stamitz symphonies within the first year of his series also suggests that the initial issue had enjoyed strong sales. Moreover, a sticker on the British Library’s copy of the overture indicates that it had been sold at Welcker’s Musick Shop on Gerrard Street, St. Ann’s, in Soho.[4] It seems unlikely that a music retailer would carry a rival printer’s publication unless it was in high demand.

An interesting feature of Periodical Overture No. 3 is that it is a very early example of a cyclic symphony. All three of its movements incorporate a motif drawn from a Czech Christmas carol, “Nesem vám noviny,” sung in German as “Kommet, ihr Hirten” and adapted in English as “Bells Ringing in the Tower” and “Come, All Ye Shepherds.”[5] A repeated motif in the last phrase of the carol …  lends its contour to various moments in the overture: in the woodwinds in ms. 10, 12, 14, and elsewhere in the first movement; in ms. 24, 25, and so forth in the “Larghetto”; and in augmentation at the start of the finale (ms. 2-3 and 6-7). Moreover, Stamitz designated the first movement as a “Pastorale Presto,” thus linking his symphony to a popular Nativity custom of writing “pastorella” works for performance in the Christmas season, often in church.[6]

Stamitz structured the quadruple-meter first movement in the pattern that James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy call a “Type II Sonata.”[7] The movement begins with a conventional exposition in D major; it transitions to the dominant A major and introduces a second theme at ms. 35 and a closing theme at ms. 47. However, when the first theme, filled with soft “drum 8ths” and a series of imitative descents, reappears in ms. 66, it is also in A major. The return to the tonic key (ms. 104) coincides with the recapitulation of the closing theme. That third theme is followed by the second theme (ms. 120) as well as an additional statement of the closing theme at ms. 132. The first theme does not return in the tonic key at all, and the movement ends at a pianissimo, reflecting its unconventionally quiet opening.[8]

Although the triple-meter “Larghetto” (in the subdominant key of G major) also starts quietly, it features numerous sudden piano—forte contrasts (and vice versa), reflecting the Mannheim taste for distinctive dynamic variety. Like the opening movement, it employs a Type II sonata pattern, this time with repeated sections in a ||: 1st theme/I – 2nd theme/V :||: 1st theme/V– 2nd theme/I :|| progression.

In contrast to the quiet openings of the first two movements, the “Vivace” in D Major begins at a vigorous forte and with a unison premier coup d’archet.[9] The finale conforms to a model sonata-form in a bouncy 6/8 meter. Richard Will suggests that this lively gigue-like conclusion supports the “glorifying and praising God” that concludes the St. Luke account of the Nativity story.[10] Even without a religious connotation, Periodical Overture No. 3 presents a well-unified yet varied listening journey.

Alyson McLamore

[1] Jenny Burchell, Polite or Commercial Concerts?: Concert Management and Orchestral Repertoire in Edinburgh, Bath, Oxford, Manchester, and Newcastle, 1730–1799, Outstanding Dissertations in Music from British Universities, ed. by John Caldwell (New York: Garland Publishing, 1996), 310–344 passim.

[2] Karl Kroeger, “An Unknown Collection of Eighteenth-Century Instrumental Music,” Fontes Artis Musicae 35, no. 4 (October–December 1988): 277, 280.

[3] O. G. Sonneck, Early Concert-Life in America (1731–1800) (Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1907), 262.

[4] British Library, g.474.n.(3).

[5] https://www.cpdl.org/wiki/index.php/Nesem_v%C3%A1m_noviny_(Traditional); Eugene K. Wolf, The Symphonies of Johann Stamitz: A Study in the Formation of the Classic Style (Utrecht: Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, 1981), 303.

[6] Richard Will, The Characteristic Symphony in the Age of Haydn and Beethoven, New Perspectives in Music History and Criticism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 86.

[7] James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy, Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 353–4.

[8] Wolf, The Symphonies of Johann Stamitz, 303.

[9] David D. Boyden and Peter Walls, “Coup d’archet,” in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed., ed. Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan, 2001), Vol. 6: 579.

[10] Will, The Characteristic Symphony in the Age of Haydn and Beethoven, 90.

 

Coming soon…..

The Periodical Overture in 8 Parts – Number IV: Anton Filtz

Francesco Pasquale Ricci: The Periodical Overture in 8 Parts – No. II

This is the 2nd of the Periodical Overtures in 8 Parts which are being published in conjunction with Musikproduktion Höflich.

Listen here before heading over to musikproduktion höflich to obtain the score and parts.

Like most mid-eighteenth-century symphonies, Periodical Overture No. 2 is a three-movement, fast-slow-fast structure. The work opens in E-flat, moves to the relative minor in the second movement, and returns to E-flat for the finale. A surviving manuscript of Ricci’s composition, held in the National Library of the Czech Republic, contains two trumpet parts rather than horns, but it also lacks the central “Andante” movement, so it is unknown if Bremner altered the instrumentation of Ricci’s original score or worked from a different version of the symphony altogether.[1]

The first movement, “Vivace assai,” displays many of the elements that made the still-new genre of the symphony so exciting for listeners. Structured as a sonata form without repeated sections, its energy is apparent from the start, as steady “drum eighths” in common time propel the orchestra forward through shifting harmonies, as shown by the figured bass. Rapid contrasts between piano and forte create roller-coaster-like effects, while extended crescendos and measured tremolos also build drama. The first theme is filled with slurred pairs of neighboring notes, while the second theme (ms. 30) is much more staccato.

The brief C minor “Andante” seems almost mysterious at first: it is set in simple triple meter, reduces the ensemble to strings alone, and opens at a piano dynamic level. Like the first movement, however, it leaps suddenly to forte multiple times; it also offers back-to-back contrasts between motifs that use either staccato or legato articulations.

Unlike many early symphonies, the finale is not gigue-like but is instead a “Minuetto Grazioso,” retaining the triple meter of the “Andante” but returning to the E-flat major tonality of the first movement and restoring the horns and oboes to the ensemble. The first oboe is featured in several short passages, perhaps reflecting Ricci’s awareness of the new scoring trends originating in Mannheim. Despite the “minuet” designation, the architecture is a sonata form, with the treble and bass instruments pulling in opposite directions in the first theme. The second theme (ms. 17) brings back other elements of the “Vivace assai,” such as the drum eighths and measured tremolos, and its irregular phrase lengths further contradict the “dance” expectations of the movement’s title. Ricci seems to have been fully aware that he was creating music for the pleasure of a still-new social phenomenon: that of concert-goers.

Alyson McLamore

[1] https://rism.online/sources/550040744.

Coming soon…..

The Periodical Overture in 8 Parts – Number III: Johann Stamitz

Johann Christian Bach: The Periodical Overture in 8 Parts – No. I

I am very excited to introduce the first of the 61 Periodical Overtures in 8 Parts which are being published in conjunction with Musikproduktion Höflich.

Listen here before heading over to musikproduktion höflich to obtain the score and parts.

The structure of the Periodical Overture No. 1 reflects the close kinship between Italian operatic overtures, or sinfonie, and early symphonies. It is in three movements, in a typical fast-slow-fast tempo arrangement, and the middle movement is in the key of G, the subdominant of the outer movements’ D major tonality. Although (the publisher) Bremner would eventually exceed the “eight parts” limit in some of the later items in the series, he eliminated the trumpet and timpani parts from Bach’s operatic version. As would be true in all of Bremner’s Periodical Overtures, the bass is figured.

The first movement also reflects many features of the newer “Mannheim” taste. It is marked “Allegro con Spirito” and presents a striking unison arpeggiated passage after a bold hammer chord. The eighth-note rhythms of the opening soon yield to sixteenths, reflecting the principle of increasing animation; the lower strings frequently perform “drum eighths” as part of the first theme’s steady propulsion through two- and four-bar phrases. The second theme at ms. 29, in A major, drops to piano and features more polyphonic interweaving of lines; the winds frequently play sigh motives. After a series of sudden dynamic contrasts, Bach’s closing theme (ms. 39) again opens at piano with the upper strings playing “tip-toe” passages in thirds.

Structurally, the “Allegro con spirito” is a sonata form without a development, which James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy call a “Type I Sonata.”[1] Therefore, while the first theme is heard in A major beginning in ms. 46, it immediately jumps back to the tonic D major in ms. 50, followed by the second theme and closing theme in measures 69 and 80.

The “Andante,” like the first movement, is in common time, and has been called “elegantly poised.”[2] The ensemble is reduced to strings alone, but there is again a strong opening chord, followed by numerous sudden dynamic contrasts. The “B” theme, starting in ms. 9, is peppered with numerous Scotch snaps. The movement’s architecture is a rounded binary form, with the “A” theme returning in ms. 21. The subsequent coda (ms. 28) continues the contrasting dynamics, but gives the low strings occasional pedal tones on the tonic G.

The “Allegro assai” follows the popular trend of a gigue-like finale. Set in 3/8 time, it has the customary disjunct bounciness of a jig. It also is tied to the opening movement by means of a unison arpeggiated opening, again in a descending direction. Like the slow movement, it is in rounded binary form, with its opening melody returning in ms. 45. Bach brings the movement—and the overture—to an emphatic close by repeating the tonic chord thirteen times in the last five bars. Periodical Overture No. I gave the public a very fine introduction to Bach’s instrumental prowess as well as a promising indication of the quality of future items in Bremner’s series.

Alyson McLamore

[1] James Hepokoski and Warren Darcy, Elements of Sonata Theory: Norms, Types, and Deformations in the Late-Eighteenth-Century Sonata (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), 345.

[2] Ernest Warburton, program booklet commentary for Johann Christian Bach, Opera Overtures Vol. 1, The Hanover Band, conducted by Anthony Halstead, CO 999129-2, compact disc, 17.

 

Coming soon….

The Periodical Overture in 8 Parts – Number II: Francesco Ricci

 

 

The Periodical Overtures in 8 Parts

This is an exciting long term publishing project in conjunction with the musicologist Dr Alyson McLamore and the publishing house Musikproduktion Höflich. Join us on this journey of rediscovery of music from the London scene during the Rage for Music in the second half of the 18th century.

The Periodical Overtures in 8 Parts is a remarkable series of sixty-one orchestral symphoniespublished in London by Robert Bremner between 1763 and 1783. In essence, it was a symphony-of-the-month publication over this twenty-year period, capturing the musical tastes of London during the era’s Rage for Music. Bremner was inspired to undertake the series after witnessing the success on the continent of similar French periodical prints. In England, however, Bremner’s series went unrivalled for a decade, and no other later British publisher came close to matching his success with this periodical format.

From the start, Bremner promised to issue works that had never been printed in Britain and that were composed by “the most celebrated Authors.” He honoured both of those commitments, and by 1783, the Periodical Overtures represented some twenty-eight well-regarded composers from across Europe. To accommodate smaller orchestras, the symphonies were usually limited to eight parts, representing first and second violins, viola, bass, a pair of oboes, and a pair of horns, although a few additional instruments began appearing in various issues as British ensembles grew more ambitious.

Bremner also catered to a generally conservative British taste by adding figured bass if it were not already present and sometimes reducing the number of movements to three. The works were widely performed, appearing in the records of concert organizations in England, Scotland, and even in the American colonies. Late in the century, several of the most popular issues were arranged for keyboard, reflecting not only the increasing number of pianos in private homes, but also the Periodical Overtures’ staying power.

The objective of these Periodical Overtures Editions in the Repertoire Explorer Series published by Musikproduktion Höflich is to make this unique collection of orchestral works easily accessible and affordable. The Periodical Overtures Editions enrich the repertoire available to chamber orchestras, professional and amateur alike, providing them with valuable historical and musical insights as well as much delightful music-making, a great deal of which is unknown to contemporary audiences and performers.

Scores and parts are available from Musikproduktion Höflich. Audio renditions of each overture are available on this page as they are published.

The Periodical Overture in 8 Parts – Number IV: Anton Fils (Filtz)

The Periodical Overture in 8 Parts – Number III: Johann Stamitz

The Periodical Overture in 8 Parts – Number II: Francesco Ricci

The Periodical Overture in 8 Parts – Number I: Johann Christian Bach

Coming soon…..

May 2024

The Periodical Overture in 8 Parts – Number V: Pietro Maria Crispi

June 2024

The Periodical Overture in 8 Parts – Number VI: Johann Stamitz

July 2024

We look forward to your feedback on this project. Please let us know your thoughts by adding your comments below:

 

Westron Wynde

Orchestra

2015

Duration: 8’45”

Scored for four clarinets, organ, piano and strings, Westron Wynde is is a contemplation derived from the Sanctus from John Sheppard’s mass of the same name. The music unfolds across three panels and depicts a vast empty landscape. Two brief extracts from Sheppard’s Sanctus can be heard as the music progresses, the first stated by the clarinets, the second, at a distance, by a string quartet.

… some become stars …

(2013)

Eight Violas

Duration 4′

Originally written for piano as part of a set of two short pieces  … some become stars … also exists as a piece eight violas: versions for eight violoncellos and string orchestra also existi.

It is an evocation of the stillness of the night sky and the wonders of the stars above us, so often hidden in our increasingly urban landscape. The eight instruments playing together allows them to play and breathe as one voice in a music that seeks to calm the soul and provide respite.

Scores and parts are available upon request.

… some become stars … also exists in a version for eight violoncellos

In Autumn

(2010, 2016, 2023)

for orchestra (strings, flutes & piccolos)

Duration: 11’11”

In autumn is a piece for string orchestra with flutes and piccolos. It is an evocation of a woodland scene in late autumn in the pre-Appenini mountains of central Italy, specifically an area named Forca d’Acero which is a high mountain pass (1500m) on the border between Lazio and Abbruzzo: an evocative woodland landscape.

Mesto

2023

for String Orchestra

Duration 8′

Originally written for string quartet, Mesto is a study in melancholy. Using a diatonic palette, the strings pivot around a central harmony with the upper and lower parts mirroring one another as they expand outwards from the centre.

Score and parts available for purchase or hire

Priest – Mesto (sample)

I might have die

(1997)

Duration: 8’30”

Soprano

Chamber Orchestra (flute, 2 clarinets, piano, strings)

 

Text: Bartolomeo Vanzetti

If it had not been for these thing, I might have live out my life, talking at street corners to scorning men. I might have die, unmarked, unknown, a failure. Now we are not a failure. This is our career and our triumph. Never in our full life can we hope to do such work for tolerance, for joostice, for man’s onderstanding of man, as now we do by an accident.

Our words – our lives – our pains – nothing! the taking of our lives-lives of a good shoemaker and a poor fish peddler- all! That last moment belong to us-that agony is our triumph!

Soprano: Joanna Brown
Dubai Chamber Orchestra
Conductor: Barnaby Priest

Recorded @ The Fridge, Dubai, 17th February 2014

Sikka

(2016)

Duration: 6’00”

Instrumentation: 2 clarinets

Commissioned by the Aubarra Clarinet Duo: Jonathan Aubrey and Michael Rex Bacarra

First performed by them at the XVA Gallery in Al Fahidi Historical District, Dubai

SIKKA (path) takes its name from the narrow streets to be found in the Al Fahidi Historical District in Dubai. These streets between high walls, are evocative of an historical past quite distinct from the modern image of Duabi as global metropolis. They evoke, for me, images and memories of a calmer time when the pace of life was less frenetic. As I wander through the maze of narrow streets I am always surprised and delighted as each turn in the road opens onto a small square, a view of a distant minaret, a glimpse of the busy Dubai Creek, a detail of domestic architecture or, through an open door, a glimpse into the inner courtyard of one of the many houses that have now been restructured. As you continue walking the sounds of the distant city come to you unexpectedly as the high walls protect you from the buzz beyond the area. In the evening, as the sun sets, the shadows lengthen and day turns to night, you are bathed in the sound of the muezzin’s call to prayer from the many mosques. My music takes inspiration from this very special, physical environment.

SIKKA is divided into three short contrasting movements. The first movement uses a very limited range of notes in the middle register of each performer, the players play an augmenting canon where they chase one another. The image here is of ripples on the water of the nearby creek where the vivid colours of working dhows reflect endlessly in the water disturbed by the passing abbras as they ferry people from one side to the other of the creek. The second movement, where a melody is passed and varied between the two players, is evocative of the tranquility and silence in the Sikka in the early morning mist. The final movement, much faster and lighter in character pits two scale like figure against one another, the one fast and upward moving, the other descending moving at a slower speed.